1. The people that a legislator spends considerable time and effort serving are A) delegates.
2. Bureaucracy is the name given to A) a large organization, structured hierarchically, that carries out specific functions.
B) any organization that has major problems when attempting to accomplish its goals.
C) a group of people who work to enforce policies in a way that prevents quick results.
D) any large branch of a government that has power to interpret laws.
E) government organizations, but not corporate or university ones.
3. Oversight is the process by which Congress A) makes sure laws it has enacted are being enforced in the way it intended.
B) reviews the actions of subcommittees.
C) chooses its leadership.
D) supervises the activity of the judicial branch.
E) passes legislation.
4. A justice who agrees with the result reached by the majority of the Court but wants to voice disapproval of the grounds on which the decision was made would write A) a majority opinion.
B) a dissenting opinion.
C) a consenting opinion.
D) an amicus curiae brief.
E) a concurring opinion.
5. Going public” means that the president A) goes to the public over the heads of the members of Congress.
B) goes to the Washington community over the heads of the members of Congress.
C) refrains from invoking executive privilege.
D) puts pressure on members of Congress by threatening to release details about their private lives.
E) publicizes information that was formerly classified.
6. The president, in his capacity as head of state, is responsible for A) determining with which countries the United States will have diplomatic relations.
B) engaging in activities that are largely symbolic or ceremonial in nature.
C) conducting the foreign policy of the country.
D) leading the legislative process by submitting legislation.
E) administering the laws.
7. The replacement of the spoils system with a civil service system was the long-term effect of A) the Civil War.
B) the killing of Alexander Hamilton by Aaron Burr in a duel.
C) the assassination of President James A. Garfield.
D) the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.
E) the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
8. The necessary and proper clause A) has increased the powers of the state governments at the expense of Congress’ powers.
B) was eliminated as a consequence of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment
C) has expanded the role of the national government relative to the states.
D) has served to limit the expansion of national authority.
E) is located in the Constitution in the text of the Tenth Amendment.
9. A pocket veto A) can be used by a president only once during his term in office, although he can use it twice if he serves two terms
B) means that the legislation cannot be reintroduced in the next Congress.
C) was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1936.
D) is a veto in which the president does not send a veto message back to Congress.
E) can only be used when Congress adjourns for the session within ten days of the bill being submitted to the President.
10. The power of the courts to determine whether a law or action by the other branches of government is constitutional is called A) judicial review.
B) appellate review of fact.
D) the writ of judicial appeal.
E) habeas corpus.
11. An executive order A) is a rule issued by the president that has the effect of law.
B) is not valid unless both chambers of Congress approve it.
C) must be approved by a majority of the cabinet.
D) can only be issued when Congress is not in session.
E) cannot be overturned by Congress.
12. The following two presidents are the only ones in American history to have almost been impeached: A) Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton.
B) Richard Nixon and Franklin Roosevelt.
C) Andrew Jackson and William McKinley.
D) Thomas Jefferson and Martin Van Buren.
E) Andrew Jackson and Jimmy Carter.
13. A filibuster is A) an attempt to prevent the passage of a bill through the use of unlimited debate.
B) an attempt to persuade others to vote for a particular bill in return for a favor at a later date.
C) used in the House to force a standing committee to release a bill.
D) a method used by the Speaker of the House to promote the majority party’s legislation.
E) a technique that is unique to the House.
14. A court rule bearing on subsequent legal decisions in similar cases is A) a precedent.
B) criminal law.
C) a judicial maxim.
D) common law.
E) statutory law.
15. The United States has a dual court system. There are A) civil courts and criminal courts.
B) misdemeanor and felony courts.
C) state courts and local courts.
D) state courts and federal courts.
E) district courts and territorial courts.
16. The granting of release from the punishment for a crime is A) a reprieve.
B) a congressional sanction.
C) a pardon.
D) executive privilege.
17. A brief filed by a third party who is not directly involved in the litigation but who has an interest in the outcome of a case is called A) a class-action brief.
B) an amicus curiae brief.
C) a writ of certiorari.
D) a civil brief.
E) a procedural motion.
18. The authority of a court to hear and decide a particular class of cases is known as A) common law.
B) judicial review.
E) strict construction.
19. The Environmental Protection Agency is an example of a A) cabinet department.
B) government corporation.
C) independent regulatory agency.
D) independent executive agency.
E) corporation subject to regulation.
20. The organization created in 1883 to administer the personnel service of the national government on the principle of employment on the basis of open, competitive examinations was known as the A) Unemployment Office.
B) Civil Aeronautics Commission.
C) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
D) Federal Trade Commission.
E) Civil Service Commission.
21. The Hatch Act A) The Hatch Act
B) allows the president broad control over the federal bureaucracy.
C) prohibits federal employees from active involvement in political campaigns.
D) established the principle of employment on the basis of open competitive examinations.
E) established a merit system during the Civil War.
22. The federal court derives its power from A) Article III of the Constitution.
B) Congressional legislation.
C) Article IV of the Constitution.
D) the 5th Amendment.
E) executive order.
23. The most important committees in Congress are ________ committees, permanent bodies that possess an expertise resulting from their jurisdiction over certain policy areas. A) select
24. As chief diplomat, the president A) is responsible for selecting judges to federal courts.
B) is responsible for all actions within the executive branch.
C) selects leaders of his or her party in Congress.
D) recognizes foreign governments, negotiates treaties, and makes executive agreements.
E) ratifies treaties.
25. The first cabinet department to be created was A) Treasury, and the most recently created was Education.
B) State, and the most recently created was Homeland Security.
C) War, and the most recently created was Energy.
D) Treasury, and the most recently created was Health and Human Services.
E) State, and the most recently created was Veterans Affairs.
26. Executive privilege A) involves the ability of the president and executive branch officials to withhold certain information from Congress and the courts.
B) means that members of the executive branch cannot be prosecuted for official acts.
C) is the concept that has been applied to the president’s use of the pocket veto.
D) allows the president discretion in making political appointments.
E) was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1974.
27. In mid-term congressional elections, those held between presidential contests A) voter turnout increases sharply.
B) the president’s political party will usually gain seats in Congress.
C) voter turnout falls sharply.
D) the president’s political party will be unaffected unless the president campaigns for congressional candidates.
E) incumbents are more likely to lose.
28. The Constitution states that the minimum-age requirement for the presidency is _______-years. A) twenty-five
29. Most petitions for writs of certiorari to the Supreme Court are A) granted.
B) made by Congress.
C) ordered by state district courts.
30. Generally, leaders in the House of Representatives A) have more control over the agenda of the body than leaders in the Senate.
B) must work closely with the other party’s leaders to achieve success.
C) are considered weak compared to party leaders.
D) hold more power than leaders in true party government legislatures.
E) need to overcome the unusual power of individual members.
31. Strict construction means A) that the Supreme Court should hear the fewest possible cases on appeal.
B) to stand on precedent.
C) attempting to follow the “letter of the law.”
D) attempting to understand the law by looking to its context and purpose.
E) the doctrine that citizens cannot sue their own state governments unless the states permit them to do so.
32. The concept of logrolling refers to A) action taken by a senator that attempts to prevent a bill from passing in the Senate.
B) a method that is used to keep one bill on the floor for an extended period of time, thus blocking all legislation.
C) an arrangement by which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other’s bills.
D) a method that the president uses when he wants to prevent the passage of legislation.
E) a legislative strategy originally developed by representatives from the Pacific Northwest, in which one party ends up winning while the other ends up “in the water.”
33. A representative who is performing the role of a trustee is A) only representing the needs of his or her constituents.
B) supporting the president on all of his legislative programs.
C) acting on conscience or representing the broad interests of the entire society.
D) supporting his or her political party.
E) representing other members of Congress.
34. Gerrymandering is A) legislation passed in southern states to limit African American participation in elections.
B) an attempt to prevent the passage of a bill through the use of unlimited debate.
C) a process that attempts to limit debate on a bill in the Senate.
D) the drawing of legislative district boundaries for the purpose of gaining partisan advantage.
E) unconstitutional following an 1812 ruling by the Supreme Court.
35. The enumerated powers of Congress are powers A) expressly given to that body in the Constitution.
B) that Congress has created by passing legislation.
C) that have been created by decisions of the Supreme Court.
D) that are imprecise and are usually disputed by strong presidents.
E) that follow implicitly from the United States existing as one nation among many.
36. Rewarding faithful party workers with government employment is called A) going public.
D) executive privilege.
E) civil service.
37. The State of the Union message is A) delivered by the president to the General Assembly of the United Nations at least once every four years.
B) a policy statement of Congress over which the president seldom has influence.
C) required by the Constitution and gives a broad view of what the president wishes the legislature to accomplish during the session.
D) an effective tool used by the president to limit other countries’ foreign policy endeavors in this hemisphere.
E) limited to reviewing the events of the last year.
38. If all government employees are included, more than _____ of all civilian employment is accounted for by government. A) 2 percent
B) 4 percent
C) 8 percent
D) 15 percent
E) 22 percent
39. A dissenting opinion can be important because A) it represents the position of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
B) it is the statement of the defendant’s attorney to the Court.
C) in criminal law it must be carried out by local police.
D) it often forms the basis of the arguments used later to reverse a previous decision and set a new precedent.
E) it means that the case cannot be used as a precedent.
40. The spoils system is A) the major problem of the federal bureaucracy today.
B) the most efficient way of structuring large organizations.
C) a new theory for employee selection and retention.
D) the awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends.
E) a means of ensuring the best and the brightest will hold positions in government.
41. Usually appellate courts look at questions of A) fact.
D) broad implications.
42. A major power that Congress has over the federal bureaucracy is the A) authority to select high-level bureaucrats.
B) authority to authorize or appropriate funds for particular agencies.
C) authority to fire bureaucrats for not executing policy passed by Congress.
D) power to find agency actions unconstitutional.
E) power to appoint agency heads.
43. The job of a conference committee is to A) originate appropriations bills.
B) write a compromise bill that reconciles the versions of the bill from both chambers .
C) set the rules of debate for a bill.
D) determine the committee path of a bill.
E) override a presidential veto.
44. “Money bills” A) must originate in the Senate.
B) must originate in the House.
C) must originate in conference committee.
D) must originate with the president.
E) may originate from any of the above sources.
45. The principal and most obvious function of any legislature is A) carrying out the law
C) checking the power of the judicial branch.
E) advice and consent.
46. Before a treaty can become legally binding, the treaty must be A) signed by the justices of the World Court.
B) approved by three-fourths of the state governments.
C) ratified by the Supreme Court.
D) approved by a two-thirds vote in the Senate.
E) approved by a majority vote in both chambers of Congress.
47. As chief executive, the president is constitutionally bound to A) enforce acts of Congress, judgments of federal courts, and treaties signed by the U.S.
B) submit a balanced budget to Congress.
C) inform Congress prior to any military action.
D) oversee actions of state governments.
E) honor pronouncements of the United Nations.
48. The iron triangle is A) the three branches of government.
B) The CIA, the FBI, and the ATF.
C) the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the Department of Justice.
D) an alliance of related interest groups, Congressional committees, and bureaucracy..
E) a term for the constitutional barriers to regulation.
49. The reasoning upon which a court ruling was based is A) an amicus brief.
B) the judicial implementation.
C) the opinion.
D) Rule Four.
E) a writ of certiorari.
50. The requirement that the President of the United States report to Congress within forty-eight hours of sending troops into hostilities and then obtain the approval of Congress within sixty days is established by A) the Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp.
B) the National Security Act.
C) the War Powers Resolution.
D) the Nixon Protocol.
E) Article II of the Constitution.
1. The people that a legislator spends considerable time and effort serving are A) delegates.